Minggu 2

Posted: January 16, 2011 in Uncategorized

Selasa (11.01.2011)

Berikut merupakan hasil perbincangan kami di dalam kelas pada hari tersebut :

Science Education

Science education empowers students to be questioning, reflective and critical thinkers. it does this by giving them particular ways of looking at the world and by emphasizing the importance of evidence in forming conclusions. Science education develops students’ confidence to initiate and manage change to meet personal, vocational and societal needs. Science education assissts students to be active citizens by providing and understandings they need to be informed contributors to debates about sensitive, moral ethical and environmental issues. An appreciation of scientific knowledge, processes and values has the potential to help students appreciate and ecologically-sustainable environment. It is important that the students appreciate and understand how the study of science presents them with opportunities for responsible decision making in their local, national and global communities.

Guidance for Science Curriculum Development :

1. Rukun Negara :

  • Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan
  • Kesetiaan kepada Raja dan Negara
  • Keluhuran Perlembagaan
  • Kedaulatan Undang-undang
  • Kesopanan dan Kesusilaan

2. National Philosophy of Education :

“Education in Malaysia is an on-going efforts towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large”

3. National Science Education Philosophy :

In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency.

Science and technology culture can be achieved by the followings steps :

1. Science as a product knowledge.

2. Science as a process skills.

3. Application of the scientific knowledge in daily life.

4. Attitude and Values

5. Teaching and learning strategies.

6. Usage of ICT

7. Integration with the other non-science subjects such as engaging language in science education e.x. PPSMI.

In conclusion, science education can be potrayed as below :

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Khamis (13.01.2011)

Berikut merupakan hasil perbincangan kami di dalam kelas pada hari tersebut :


•Sees learning as a product
•Predict and control of behaviour
•Change in learner’s behaviour


•Place importance on meaningful learning
•Look into how learners construct meaning of the knowledge learnt or how learning takes place
•What happens in the mind
•Begins with what learners know

Robert Gagne and the General Learning Hierarchy

•He views learning  as the establishment of a capability to do something that the learner was not capable of doing previously. Notice the emphasis on the learner ‘ doing’.
•He postulates a hierarchy of learning capability. Learning one particular capability usually depends upon having previously learned one or more simpler capabilities
•Observable changes in behaviour comprise the only criteria for inferring that learning has occurred.
•It follows , that the beginning ,or lowest, level of a learning hierarchy would include very simple behaviours.
•These behaviours would form the basis for learning more complex behaviours in the level of hierarchy.
Gagnė Learning Hierarchy

Level 8 :   Problem solving

Level 7 :   Principle learning

Level 6 :   Concept learning

Level 5 :   Multiple discrimination

Level 4 :   Verbal association

Level 3 :   Chaining

Level 2 :    Stimulus-respon

Level 1 :   Signal learning

Piaget’s Stages of cognitive development

•Believes that all individuals proceed through a number of stages of intellectual development
•Learning is an individual, internal act that depends on learner’s cognitive development
•Stages: Sensorimotor , preoperational, concrete operational  & formal operational

Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development

•Learners can reach the higher ground in a particular knowledge domain
•Learning is a social and collaborative activity
•Learners must utilise the input of others
•The ‘others’- peers, parents,friends, internet, books, videos
•The teacher is a facilitator
•The zone is known ZPD, where it is the distance the learner’s existing level and the target level
•Through expert-novice relationship or scaffolding
•Ex: Teacher facilitating students


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