Minggu 10

Posted: March 19, 2011 in Uncategorized

Selasa (15.03.2011)

Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut :

Field trip

What is a Field Trip and Why Take Them?

A field trip is defined as any teaching and learning excursion outside of the classroom.

There are two types of field trips – Physical and Virtual.


Physical Field Trip Examples

  • school playground, school board outdoor education centres, provincial parks, protective wet lands, science centres, museums, zoos, grocery stores, fire stations, veterinary clinics, agricultural operations, natural resource operations

Virtual Field Trip Examples

  • http://www.geog.le.ac.uk/cti/virt.html – CTI Virtual Worlds and Field Trips link – this website will lead to the other virtual field trip links.
  • http://www.uen.org/utahlink/tours/ – Virtual Field Trips – website will allow you to visit and explore by subject various educational learning field trips, create your own field trip or visit other virtual field trips that are located across the web.


Why Field Trips?

  • To make a connection between reality and theory – hands-on
  • Can be used as an introduction to a unit or a culminating actively.
  • To provide an authentic learning experience
  • Exciting, children get to meet and interact with others
  • They can experience all five senses, see, touch, feel, smell, taste
  • Children remember the field trips because they learn using different methodology




How to Plan and Run a Successful Physical Field Trip

  • Planned and effectively organized
    • Check for school/board policy on field trips
    • Children to supervisor ratios
    • Transportation procedures
    • Fund raising
    • Plan with children as much as possible
    • Involve school principal and vice-principal
    • Ensure field trip compliments the curriculum by meeting specific expectations
    • Ensure students have necessary background knowledge prior to field trip, if introduction to field trip provide essential preparatory information in order to prepare students for the experience
    • Plan post-trip activities that build on the knowledge gained in partaking in the field trip (eg. reports, displays, photos, graphs).
    • Prepare a checklist to ensure that all tasks are completed (e.g. booking facilities and transportation, parental notifications, medical forms, supervision, safety precautions, emergency information) and have the school administrator sign the checklist once completed.
    • Be sure to visit the site ahead of time, in order to plan for safety, resources and resource personnel, facility.
    • Plan on route activities to enrich their experience during the field trip.
    • Provide parents with rationalization for the field trip and trip itinerary.



Guidelines for Safety and Behaviour


  • There are many potential liability situations that can occur on a field trip, it is your ultimate responsibility to ensure that the following safety guidelines are meet concerning safety and behaviour while outside the classroom.
  • Set behavioural expectations for the field trip and describe and discuss them with the children prior to departure.
  • Have children create their own code of behaviour with teacher involvement and veto power.
  • If junior students are mature enough to be responsible and accountable for their own behaviour, have them sign a written code of conduct; therefore, creating a behavioural contract.
  • Introduce the idea of team work to enable students to live to the written code of conduct.
  • Describe the consequences for not behaving properly prior to embarking on the trip.
  • Provide parents with behavioural expectations and ask them to ensure that the children know and understand the code of conduct and the consequences.
  • Ensure that the student/supervision ratio meets board/school standards.
  • Eliminate all the safety concerns identified in the school/board policy.
  • Use board approved transportation.
  • Create passenger manifest and file with appropriate school personnel.  Also, take along passenger manifest to check that everyone is accounted for.
  • Implement a buddy with students as an additional safety precaution.
  • Ensure that safety gear and first aid equipment are readily available and in plain view.





  • Teaching a skill, concept or principle.
  • Delicate and dangerous experiments involving careful manipulation.
  • Experiments involving difficult and complex operations.
  • Use of costly apparatus.
  • Several experiments are to be performed in one period to establish connections between them to derive conclusions.
  • Number of operations in an experiment are too many


  • Concrete things are shown. So students don’t enter into false imagination as it happens in a lecture.
  • Students get confidence in the application of scientific principles as they observe them working and not simply hear about them.
  • Motivates the students for further learning. Number of equipment is less and students are more, this is an ideal method.
  • Method is aligned to the principle, ‘Learning is more in seeing than in hearing;
  • Learning is more in doing than in seeing and hearing;


  • Specify the objective of the demonstration.
  • Prepare a plan for your demo listing the various steps in the proper sequence.
  • Decide what information should be presented to the students BEFORE, DURING and AFTER THE Demonstration.
  • Choose appropriate equipment, tools and other accessories.
  • Practice or rehearse the presentation.
  • Arrange the physical setting so that each student will be able to see clearly.
  • Arrange the equipment to be demonstrated in order.
  • It is convenient to keep the equipment to be used on the left hand side and the used ones on the right hand side.
  • Demonstrate step by step. match explanation with manipulation.
  • Avoid lengthy explanations. Use a pointer to highlight the details/specific features.
  • Do not show how Not to do a particular thing.
  • Provide opportunities for students’ participation in the demonstration.

Khamis (17.03.2011)


  • Effective teachers are always planning for their classes
  • For a long range , they plan scope, depth of treatment,  and sequence of content
  • They develop units, design activities to be used and assessment of learning to be done
  • They familiarise themselves with textbooks, course wares , materials, apparatus, AVA, and new innovation in subject content, .. ect.,
  • Yet ..despite-HAPPENED UNEXPECTEDLY all this planning…DLP remains pivotal-IMPORTANT to the planning process
  • Effective science teachers interact with students in a skillful manner
  • Generally able to establish rapport with the class
  • Be open to students’ questions and stimulate class participation
  • Most students learn better when they are relaxed, confident and not felling threatened
  • A comfortable learning atmosphere makes learning more enjoyable and encourage creativity
  • Students welcome the opportunity to be involved in a well-planned class discussion activities

What is a Daily Lesson Plan(DLP)?

  • A DLP is written to convey- (TO EXPRESS SOMETHING) a unit of information, concepts and skills to his/her students in an effective way during a period(s) of time
  • Some of the information that can be found in a lesson plan are topic , aims and objectives/learning outcomes, lesson content and teaching procedures, assessment and revision
What For?
  • Well-written lesson plans have many uses
  • They give a teacher an agenda or outline to follow in teaching a lesson
  • They give a substitute teacher a basis for presenting appropriate (TAKE SOMETHING FOR OWN USE) lessons to a class
  • Very useful when a teacher is planning  to use the same lesson again in the future
  • They provide the teacher with something to fall back on in case of memory lapse (ERROR), an interruption, or some other distraction,
  • They provide beginners with security…with a carefully prepared lesson plan a beginning teacher can walk into a classroom with the confidence gained from having developed a sensible (SHOWING GOOD) SENSE framework-(IDEA) for that day’s instruction
  • As a beginning teacher later…you should make considerably detailed lesson plans . This will require a great deal of work for at least the first year or two
  • Since most teachers plan their DLPs only a day or two ahead, you can expect a busy first year teaching..
  • Some teachers are concerned (WORRIED) about being seen using a written lesson plan in class.. thinking it may suggest that they have not mastered the subject
  • On the contrary, a lesson plan is a visible sign of preparation on the part of the teacher
  • A written lesson plan shows that thinking and planning have taken place and that the teacher has a road map to work through the lesson no matter what the distractions
  • Most experience teacher agree that there is  no excuse for appearing before a class without evidence of careful preparation…
  • Experience teachers may not require lesson plans as detailed as those necessary for beginning teachers ….after all , they often can develop shortcuts to lesson planning without sacrificing effectiveness (in our system , all teachers are required to prepare lesson plans)
  • Yet, lesson planning is a continual process, for there is always a need to keep it current and relevant
  • Because no two groups of students are exactly the same , today’s lesson plan will probably need to be tailored to the peculiar (UNIQUE) needs of next year’s group of students
  • Also, because the content of a topic will change as new developments occur
  • Hence , lesson plans should be in a constant state of revision!
  • The DLP should provide a tentative outlines but always remain flexible
  • A DLP planned to cover 6 aspects of a given topic may end with only 3 aspects , because of the unforeseen (NOT EXPECTED) distractions
  • These occurrences  are natural in a school setting, and the teacher and the plan must be flexible enough to accommodate this reality
  • Since planning is a skill that takes years to master, a beginning teacher should overplan rather run the risk of having too few activities  to occupy the time the students in the classrooms/laboratories
  • One way is to include alternate activities in your DLP
Format of DLP
  • Descriptive data
  • Goals and objectives/learning outcomes
  • Prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Lesson contents
  • Materials needed/ teaching and learning resources/aids
  • Teaching and learning strategies/procedures with time plan
  • Assessment and revision
  • References


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