Minggu 9

Posted: March 19, 2011 in Uncategorized

Selasa (08.03.2011)

Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut :

Discrepant event

A discrepant event is an event that surprises, startles, puzzles, or astonishes the observer. Often, a discrepant event is one that does not appear to follow basic rules or principles of matter and energy. The outcome of a discrepant event is often unexpected or contrary to what one would have predicted. The explanation for the phenomena observed is not often easily explained without further investigation. Discrepant events stimulate an observer’s natural curiosity. After observing a discrepant event, an observer will want to know “why!” The observer will be strongly motivated to “find out.” Discrepant events engage the observer in the learning process. Discrepant events engage learners in inquiry.

Discrepant events can be used:

  • to engage students in inquiry
  • as a demonstration followed by discussion to introduce a new topic
  • to engage students in science processes skills
  • as a small group lab activity
  • as a mind-on warm-up to stimulate critical thinking
  • as a take home lab activity
  • as a challenge for students to create investigative lab activites to find out more about the event
  • example of discrepant event :

    Alcohol and water miscibility

    If you add 50 mL of water to 50 mL of water, you get 100 mL of water. If you add 50 mL of ethanol to 50 mL of ethanol, you get 100 mL of ethanol. What happens if you mix 50 mL of water with 50 mL of ethanol? Actually, you get about 96 mL of liquid.


    The water and ethanol molecules are different sizes, with the ethanol molecules being smaller. Some of the ethanol fits in the spaces between the water molecules.

    Think about two other materials: a liter of sand and a liter of rocks. If you pour the sand into the rocks, the total volume will be less than two liters, because some of the sand fills in the spaces between the rocks.



    Khamis (10.03.2011)

    Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut :

    Lecture Method

    Lecture as a Teaching Method:

    Lecture is when an instructor is the central focus of information transfer. Typically, an instructor will stand before a class and present information for the students to learn. Usually, very little exchange occurs between the instructor and the students during a lecture.

    Pros of Lecture as a Teaching Method:

    • Lectures are a straightforward way to impart knowledge to students quickly.
    • Instructors also have a greater control over what is being taught in the classroom because they are the sole source of information.
    • Students who are auditory learners find that lectures appeal to their learning style.
    • Logistically, a lecture is often easier to create than other methods of instruction.
    • Lecture is a method familiar to most teachers because it was typically the way they were taught.
    • Because most college courses are lecture-based, students gain experience in this predominant instructional delivery method.

    Cons of Lecture as a Teaching Method:

    • Students strong in learning styles other than auditory learning will have a harder time being engaged by lectures.
    • Students who are weak in note-taking skills will have trouble understanding what they should remember from lectures.
    • Students can find lectures boring causing them to lose interest.
    • Students may not feel that they are able to ask questions as they arise during lectures.
    • Teachers may not get a real feel for how much students are understanding because there is not that much opportunity for exchanges during lectures.

    Final Thoughts :

    Lectures are one tool in a teacher’s arsenal of teaching methods. Just as with all the other tools, it should only be used when most appropriate. Instruction should be varied from day to day to help reach the most students possible. Teachers should be cautioned that before heading into numerous classes full of nothing but lectures, they need to provide their students with note taking skills. Only by helping students understand verbal clues and learn methods of organizing and taking notes will they truly help them become successful and get the most out of lectures.
    Discussion Method

    Discussion as a Teaching Method:

    Discussion is a modified form of classroom lecture where the focus is shared between the instructor and the students for information transfer. Typically, an instructor will stand before a class and present information for the students to learn but the students will also participate by answering questions and providing examples.

    Pros of Discussion as a Teaching Method:

    • Whole group discussions provide for greater interaction between teacher and students.
    • Instructors maintain a greater control over what is being taught because they are able to steer the discussion.
    • Auditory learners find them appealing to their learning style.
    • Teachers can check on what students are retaining through questions posed.
    • Whole group discussion is comfortable for many teachers because it is a modified form of lecture.
    • Students have a tendency to stay focused on the lesson because they might be called on to answer questions.
    • Students may feel more comfortable asking questions during whole group discussions.

    Cons of Discussion as a Teaching Method:

    • Whole group discussions require setting up and enforcing ground rules for students. If these rules are not enforced then there is a possibility that the discussion could quickly go off-topic.
    • Students who are weak in note-taking skills will have trouble understanding what they should remember from group discussions. This is even more so than in lectures in many cases because not only the teacher but fellow students are talking about the lesson.
    • Some students may not feel comfortable being put on the spot during a whole group discussion.

    Final Thoughts :

    Whole group discussions are an excellent teaching method when used in conjunction with other methods. Instruction should be varied from day to day to help reach the most students possible. Teachers need to provide their students with note taking skills before starting discussions. It is important that teachers be good at managing and facilitating discussions. Questioning techniques are effective for this. Two questioning techniques that teachers employ is to increase their wait time after questions are asked and to only ask one question at a time.
    Jigsaw discussion method?

    Overview of the TechniqueThe jigsaw classroom is a cooperative learning technique with a three-decade track record of successfully reducing racial conflict and increasing positive educational outcomes. Just as in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece–each student’s part–is essential for the completion and full understanding of the final product. If each student’s part is essential, then each student is essential; and that is precisely what makes this strategy so effective.

    Jigsaw in 10 Easy Steps
    The jigsaw classrom is very simple to use. If you’re a teacher, just follow these steps:

    1. Divide students into 5- or 6-person jigsaw groups. The groups should be diverse in terms of gender, ethnicity, race, and ability.
    2. Appoint one student from each group as the leader. Initially, this person should be the most mature student in the group.
    3. Divide the day’s lesson into 5-6 segments. For example, if you want history students to learn about Eleanor Roosevelt, you might divide a short biography of her into stand-alone segments on: (1) Her childhood, (2) Her family life with Franklin and their children, (3) Her life after Franklin contracted polio, (4) Her work in the White House as First Lady, and (5) Her life and work after Franklin’s death.
    4. Assign each student to learn one segment, making sure students have direct access only to their own segment.
    5. Give students time to read over their segment at least twice and become familiar with it. There is no need for them to memorize it.
    6. Form temporary “expert groups” by having one student from each jigsaw group join other students assigned to the same segment. Give students in these expert groups time to discuss the main points of their segment and to rehearse the presentations they will make to their jigsaw group.
    7. Bring the students back into their jigsaw groups.
    8. Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group. Encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarification.
    9. Float from group to group, observing the process. If any group is having trouble (e.g., a member is dominating or disruptive), make an appropriate intervention. Eventually, it’s best for the group leader to handle this task. Leaders can be trained by whispering an instruction on how to intervene, until the leader gets the hang of it.
    10. At the end of the session, give a quiz on the material so that students quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just fun and games but really count.

    Role-playing method

    One of the most common training methods in use is called Role Play. Role Play is used in a variety of ways:

    a) A small group enacts a role-play about a situation while other learners observe. A discussion follows that enactment. In this use, it is similar to a demonstration where learning occurs through observation. Such role-play can be enacted by the trainers themselves, a few outsiders, or a handful of learners, with or without trainers.

    b) Secondly, role-play is used to stimulate discussion on complex issues. A brief enactment by trainers or learners or both can be used to stimulate further group discussion on similar issuer and experiences that learners share. This method of learning is essentially group discussion where role-play merely acts as a stimulant or catalyst for the discussion that follows. In this use, it is similar to an aid like charts, video clipping, etc.

    c) In certain situations, a role-play is also used to practice some skills. For example. The adult education instructor can be trained to practice how to motivate adult learners by enacting different roles. The prime method of learning here is by practicing and receiving feedback from learners and trainers after that practice.

    d) In the fourth way,  a role-play is a re-enactment of past experiences. In this sense, all learners are involved to enact an issue or a situation about which they are familiar in their past. For example, a group of 25 illiterate women learners can be divided into 5 sub-groups to prepare and re-enact the experience of being a wife in the family. Since all the learners share this experience and all of them are involved in re-enactment, learning occurs here through the twin steps of preparation and re-enactment.

    This approach is particularly useful where learners share a somewhat similar experience and that experience or issue is difficult to recall because of its emotional valence. It can also be used where the possibility of recall of past experience is likely to be uneven among learners. This use of re-enactment as role-play is particularly apt for issues dealing with complex emotional and attitudinal aspects of learning.

    Obviously, the choice of a particular use of role-play depends on the learning agenda, group of learners and trainer’s capacity. But it is important to remember that the fourth type of use mentioned above implies learning from re-enactment of past experience, which can be a powerful method if the focus of learning is awareness.

    Of course, in whichever way role-play is used, a discussion must follow to process the experience of either observation or re-enactment. It must be remembered that real consolidation of learning through role-play occurs through the steps of preparation, re-enactment, discussion, processing and analysis with generalization to real life situation.


    • It is energizing

    • It helps the suppressed and illiterate to express their feelings

    • It is simple and low cost

    • It focuses on problems which are very real in nature

    • It presents complex issues simply and in a short while

    • It does not need material or advance preparation


    • There is a possibility of it becoming entertainment which vitiates learning

    • Participants can get too involved in their roles and later loose objectivity during analysis

    • Acting can become an end in itself and participants can overact or distort the roles

    • That the observers need to observe must be explained clearly or else the discussion, which occurs later on the basis of this observation, will be inadequate.

    At the end of role-playing:

    Role-plays can become charged with emotion. Bringing people ‘out’ of their roles is of paramount importance, otherwise negative or hostile feelings may persist, causing continued discomfort and anxiety. Techniques for doing this include:

    • Engaging in discussion of a totally unrelated topic to promote interaction that brings the group back to the ‘here and now’

    • Allowing further discussion of any issue of concern

    • Allowing objective feedback on aspects of the portrayal of the roles and how real the situation felt

    • Asking actors and observers what they liked about the interaction and what might have been done differently

    • Asking the class what they learnt from the role-play

    • Drawing the class’ attention back to the objective, or to the main points that the role-play was to demonstrate.


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