Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Minggu 11

Posted: March 20, 2011 in Uncategorized

Selasa (22.03.2011)

PREPARATION FOR MICROTEACHING

Khamis (24.03.2011)

Minggu 10

Posted: March 19, 2011 in Uncategorized

Selasa (15.03.2011)

Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut :

Field trip

What is a Field Trip and Why Take Them?

A field trip is defined as any teaching and learning excursion outside of the classroom.

There are two types of field trips – Physical and Virtual.

 

Physical Field Trip Examples

  • school playground, school board outdoor education centres, provincial parks, protective wet lands, science centres, museums, zoos, grocery stores, fire stations, veterinary clinics, agricultural operations, natural resource operations

Virtual Field Trip Examples

  • http://www.geog.le.ac.uk/cti/virt.html – CTI Virtual Worlds and Field Trips link – this website will lead to the other virtual field trip links.
  • http://www.uen.org/utahlink/tours/ – Virtual Field Trips – website will allow you to visit and explore by subject various educational learning field trips, create your own field trip or visit other virtual field trips that are located across the web.

 

Why Field Trips?

  • To make a connection between reality and theory – hands-on
  • Can be used as an introduction to a unit or a culminating actively.
  • To provide an authentic learning experience
  • Exciting, children get to meet and interact with others
  • They can experience all five senses, see, touch, feel, smell, taste
  • Children remember the field trips because they learn using different methodology

 

 

 

How to Plan and Run a Successful Physical Field Trip

  • Planned and effectively organized
    • Check for school/board policy on field trips
    • Children to supervisor ratios
    • Transportation procedures
    • Fund raising
    • Plan with children as much as possible
    • Involve school principal and vice-principal
    • Ensure field trip compliments the curriculum by meeting specific expectations
    • Ensure students have necessary background knowledge prior to field trip, if introduction to field trip provide essential preparatory information in order to prepare students for the experience
    • Plan post-trip activities that build on the knowledge gained in partaking in the field trip (eg. reports, displays, photos, graphs).
    • Prepare a checklist to ensure that all tasks are completed (e.g. booking facilities and transportation, parental notifications, medical forms, supervision, safety precautions, emergency information) and have the school administrator sign the checklist once completed.
    • Be sure to visit the site ahead of time, in order to plan for safety, resources and resource personnel, facility.
    • Plan on route activities to enrich their experience during the field trip.
    • Provide parents with rationalization for the field trip and trip itinerary.

 

 


Guidelines for Safety and Behaviour

 

  • There are many potential liability situations that can occur on a field trip, it is your ultimate responsibility to ensure that the following safety guidelines are meet concerning safety and behaviour while outside the classroom.
  • Set behavioural expectations for the field trip and describe and discuss them with the children prior to departure.
  • Have children create their own code of behaviour with teacher involvement and veto power.
  • If junior students are mature enough to be responsible and accountable for their own behaviour, have them sign a written code of conduct; therefore, creating a behavioural contract.
  • Introduce the idea of team work to enable students to live to the written code of conduct.
  • Describe the consequences for not behaving properly prior to embarking on the trip.
  • Provide parents with behavioural expectations and ask them to ensure that the children know and understand the code of conduct and the consequences.
  • Ensure that the student/supervision ratio meets board/school standards.
  • Eliminate all the safety concerns identified in the school/board policy.
  • Use board approved transportation.
  • Create passenger manifest and file with appropriate school personnel.  Also, take along passenger manifest to check that everyone is accounted for.
  • Implement a buddy with students as an additional safety precaution.
  • Ensure that safety gear and first aid equipment are readily available and in plain view.


 

Demonstration

What is it? VERBAL EXPLANATION + LIVE DISPLAY USING APPARATUS/MODELS = DEMONSTRATION

PURPOSE OF DEMONSTRATION

  • Teaching a skill, concept or principle.
  • Delicate and dangerous experiments involving careful manipulation.
  • Experiments involving difficult and complex operations.
  • Use of costly apparatus.
  • Several experiments are to be performed in one period to establish connections between them to derive conclusions.
  • Number of operations in an experiment are too many

ADVANTAGES

  • Concrete things are shown. So students don’t enter into false imagination as it happens in a lecture.
  • Students get confidence in the application of scientific principles as they observe them working and not simply hear about them.
  • Motivates the students for further learning. Number of equipment is less and students are more, this is an ideal method.
  • Method is aligned to the principle, ‘Learning is more in seeing than in hearing;
  • Learning is more in doing than in seeing and hearing;

GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE DEMONSTRATION :

  • Specify the objective of the demonstration.
  • Prepare a plan for your demo listing the various steps in the proper sequence.
  • Decide what information should be presented to the students BEFORE, DURING and AFTER THE Demonstration.
  • Choose appropriate equipment, tools and other accessories.
  • Practice or rehearse the presentation.
  • Arrange the physical setting so that each student will be able to see clearly.
  • Arrange the equipment to be demonstrated in order.
  • It is convenient to keep the equipment to be used on the left hand side and the used ones on the right hand side.
  • Demonstrate step by step. match explanation with manipulation.
  • Avoid lengthy explanations. Use a pointer to highlight the details/specific features.
  • Do not show how Not to do a particular thing.
  • Provide opportunities for students’ participation in the demonstration.

Khamis (17.03.2011)

LESSON PLANNING

  • Effective teachers are always planning for their classes
  • For a long range , they plan scope, depth of treatment,  and sequence of content
  • They develop units, design activities to be used and assessment of learning to be done
  • They familiarise themselves with textbooks, course wares , materials, apparatus, AVA, and new innovation in subject content, .. ect.,
  • Yet ..despite-HAPPENED UNEXPECTEDLY all this planning…DLP remains pivotal-IMPORTANT to the planning process
  • Effective science teachers interact with students in a skillful manner
  • Generally able to establish rapport with the class
  • Be open to students’ questions and stimulate class participation
  • Most students learn better when they are relaxed, confident and not felling threatened
  • A comfortable learning atmosphere makes learning more enjoyable and encourage creativity
  • Students welcome the opportunity to be involved in a well-planned class discussion activities

What is a Daily Lesson Plan(DLP)?

  • A DLP is written to convey- (TO EXPRESS SOMETHING) a unit of information, concepts and skills to his/her students in an effective way during a period(s) of time
  • Some of the information that can be found in a lesson plan are topic , aims and objectives/learning outcomes, lesson content and teaching procedures, assessment and revision
What For?
  • Well-written lesson plans have many uses
  • They give a teacher an agenda or outline to follow in teaching a lesson
  • They give a substitute teacher a basis for presenting appropriate (TAKE SOMETHING FOR OWN USE) lessons to a class
  • Very useful when a teacher is planning  to use the same lesson again in the future
  • They provide the teacher with something to fall back on in case of memory lapse (ERROR), an interruption, or some other distraction,
  • They provide beginners with security…with a carefully prepared lesson plan a beginning teacher can walk into a classroom with the confidence gained from having developed a sensible (SHOWING GOOD) SENSE framework-(IDEA) for that day’s instruction
  • As a beginning teacher later…you should make considerably detailed lesson plans . This will require a great deal of work for at least the first year or two
  • Since most teachers plan their DLPs only a day or two ahead, you can expect a busy first year teaching..
  • Some teachers are concerned (WORRIED) about being seen using a written lesson plan in class.. thinking it may suggest that they have not mastered the subject
  • On the contrary, a lesson plan is a visible sign of preparation on the part of the teacher
  • A written lesson plan shows that thinking and planning have taken place and that the teacher has a road map to work through the lesson no matter what the distractions
  • Most experience teacher agree that there is  no excuse for appearing before a class without evidence of careful preparation…
  • Experience teachers may not require lesson plans as detailed as those necessary for beginning teachers ….after all , they often can develop shortcuts to lesson planning without sacrificing effectiveness (in our system , all teachers are required to prepare lesson plans)
  • Yet, lesson planning is a continual process, for there is always a need to keep it current and relevant
  • Because no two groups of students are exactly the same , today’s lesson plan will probably need to be tailored to the peculiar (UNIQUE) needs of next year’s group of students
  • Also, because the content of a topic will change as new developments occur
  • Hence , lesson plans should be in a constant state of revision!
  • The DLP should provide a tentative outlines but always remain flexible
  • A DLP planned to cover 6 aspects of a given topic may end with only 3 aspects , because of the unforeseen (NOT EXPECTED) distractions
  • These occurrences  are natural in a school setting, and the teacher and the plan must be flexible enough to accommodate this reality
  • Since planning is a skill that takes years to master, a beginning teacher should overplan rather run the risk of having too few activities  to occupy the time the students in the classrooms/laboratories
  • One way is to include alternate activities in your DLP
Format of DLP
  • Descriptive data
  • Goals and objectives/learning outcomes
  • Prerequisite knowledge/skills
  • Lesson contents
  • Materials needed/ teaching and learning resources/aids
  • Teaching and learning strategies/procedures with time plan
  • Assessment and revision
  • References


Minggu 9

Posted: March 19, 2011 in Uncategorized

Selasa (08.03.2011)

Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut :

Discrepant event

A discrepant event is an event that surprises, startles, puzzles, or astonishes the observer. Often, a discrepant event is one that does not appear to follow basic rules or principles of matter and energy. The outcome of a discrepant event is often unexpected or contrary to what one would have predicted. The explanation for the phenomena observed is not often easily explained without further investigation. Discrepant events stimulate an observer’s natural curiosity. After observing a discrepant event, an observer will want to know “why!” The observer will be strongly motivated to “find out.” Discrepant events engage the observer in the learning process. Discrepant events engage learners in inquiry.

Discrepant events can be used:

  • to engage students in inquiry
  • as a demonstration followed by discussion to introduce a new topic
  • to engage students in science processes skills
  • as a small group lab activity
  • as a mind-on warm-up to stimulate critical thinking
  • as a take home lab activity
  • as a challenge for students to create investigative lab activites to find out more about the event
  • example of discrepant event :

    Alcohol and water miscibility

    If you add 50 mL of water to 50 mL of water, you get 100 mL of water. If you add 50 mL of ethanol to 50 mL of ethanol, you get 100 mL of ethanol. What happens if you mix 50 mL of water with 50 mL of ethanol? Actually, you get about 96 mL of liquid.

    Why?

    The water and ethanol molecules are different sizes, with the ethanol molecules being smaller. Some of the ethanol fits in the spaces between the water molecules.

    Think about two other materials: a liter of sand and a liter of rocks. If you pour the sand into the rocks, the total volume will be less than two liters, because some of the sand fills in the spaces between the rocks.


     

     


    Khamis (10.03.2011)

    Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut :

    Lecture Method

    Lecture as a Teaching Method:

    Lecture is when an instructor is the central focus of information transfer. Typically, an instructor will stand before a class and present information for the students to learn. Usually, very little exchange occurs between the instructor and the students during a lecture.

    Pros of Lecture as a Teaching Method:

    • Lectures are a straightforward way to impart knowledge to students quickly.
    • Instructors also have a greater control over what is being taught in the classroom because they are the sole source of information.
    • Students who are auditory learners find that lectures appeal to their learning style.
    • Logistically, a lecture is often easier to create than other methods of instruction.
    • Lecture is a method familiar to most teachers because it was typically the way they were taught.
    • Because most college courses are lecture-based, students gain experience in this predominant instructional delivery method.

    Cons of Lecture as a Teaching Method:

    • Students strong in learning styles other than auditory learning will have a harder time being engaged by lectures.
    • Students who are weak in note-taking skills will have trouble understanding what they should remember from lectures.
    • Students can find lectures boring causing them to lose interest.
    • Students may not feel that they are able to ask questions as they arise during lectures.
    • Teachers may not get a real feel for how much students are understanding because there is not that much opportunity for exchanges during lectures.

    Final Thoughts :

    Lectures are one tool in a teacher’s arsenal of teaching methods. Just as with all the other tools, it should only be used when most appropriate. Instruction should be varied from day to day to help reach the most students possible. Teachers should be cautioned that before heading into numerous classes full of nothing but lectures, they need to provide their students with note taking skills. Only by helping students understand verbal clues and learn methods of organizing and taking notes will they truly help them become successful and get the most out of lectures.
    Discussion Method

    Discussion as a Teaching Method:

    Discussion is a modified form of classroom lecture where the focus is shared between the instructor and the students for information transfer. Typically, an instructor will stand before a class and present information for the students to learn but the students will also participate by answering questions and providing examples.

    Pros of Discussion as a Teaching Method:

    • Whole group discussions provide for greater interaction between teacher and students.
    • Instructors maintain a greater control over what is being taught because they are able to steer the discussion.
    • Auditory learners find them appealing to their learning style.
    • Teachers can check on what students are retaining through questions posed.
    • Whole group discussion is comfortable for many teachers because it is a modified form of lecture.
    • Students have a tendency to stay focused on the lesson because they might be called on to answer questions.
    • Students may feel more comfortable asking questions during whole group discussions.

    Cons of Discussion as a Teaching Method:

    • Whole group discussions require setting up and enforcing ground rules for students. If these rules are not enforced then there is a possibility that the discussion could quickly go off-topic.
    • Students who are weak in note-taking skills will have trouble understanding what they should remember from group discussions. This is even more so than in lectures in many cases because not only the teacher but fellow students are talking about the lesson.
    • Some students may not feel comfortable being put on the spot during a whole group discussion.

    Final Thoughts :

    Whole group discussions are an excellent teaching method when used in conjunction with other methods. Instruction should be varied from day to day to help reach the most students possible. Teachers need to provide their students with note taking skills before starting discussions. It is important that teachers be good at managing and facilitating discussions. Questioning techniques are effective for this. Two questioning techniques that teachers employ is to increase their wait time after questions are asked and to only ask one question at a time.
    Jigsaw discussion method?

    Overview of the TechniqueThe jigsaw classroom is a cooperative learning technique with a three-decade track record of successfully reducing racial conflict and increasing positive educational outcomes. Just as in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece–each student’s part–is essential for the completion and full understanding of the final product. If each student’s part is essential, then each student is essential; and that is precisely what makes this strategy so effective.

    Jigsaw in 10 Easy Steps
    The jigsaw classrom is very simple to use. If you’re a teacher, just follow these steps:

    1. Divide students into 5- or 6-person jigsaw groups. The groups should be diverse in terms of gender, ethnicity, race, and ability.
    2. Appoint one student from each group as the leader. Initially, this person should be the most mature student in the group.
    3. Divide the day’s lesson into 5-6 segments. For example, if you want history students to learn about Eleanor Roosevelt, you might divide a short biography of her into stand-alone segments on: (1) Her childhood, (2) Her family life with Franklin and their children, (3) Her life after Franklin contracted polio, (4) Her work in the White House as First Lady, and (5) Her life and work after Franklin’s death.
    4. Assign each student to learn one segment, making sure students have direct access only to their own segment.
    5. Give students time to read over their segment at least twice and become familiar with it. There is no need for them to memorize it.
    6. Form temporary “expert groups” by having one student from each jigsaw group join other students assigned to the same segment. Give students in these expert groups time to discuss the main points of their segment and to rehearse the presentations they will make to their jigsaw group.
    7. Bring the students back into their jigsaw groups.
    8. Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group. Encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarification.
    9. Float from group to group, observing the process. If any group is having trouble (e.g., a member is dominating or disruptive), make an appropriate intervention. Eventually, it’s best for the group leader to handle this task. Leaders can be trained by whispering an instruction on how to intervene, until the leader gets the hang of it.
    10. At the end of the session, give a quiz on the material so that students quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just fun and games but really count.

    Role-playing method


    One of the most common training methods in use is called Role Play. Role Play is used in a variety of ways:

    a) A small group enacts a role-play about a situation while other learners observe. A discussion follows that enactment. In this use, it is similar to a demonstration where learning occurs through observation. Such role-play can be enacted by the trainers themselves, a few outsiders, or a handful of learners, with or without trainers.

    b) Secondly, role-play is used to stimulate discussion on complex issues. A brief enactment by trainers or learners or both can be used to stimulate further group discussion on similar issuer and experiences that learners share. This method of learning is essentially group discussion where role-play merely acts as a stimulant or catalyst for the discussion that follows. In this use, it is similar to an aid like charts, video clipping, etc.

    c) In certain situations, a role-play is also used to practice some skills. For example. The adult education instructor can be trained to practice how to motivate adult learners by enacting different roles. The prime method of learning here is by practicing and receiving feedback from learners and trainers after that practice.

    d) In the fourth way,  a role-play is a re-enactment of past experiences. In this sense, all learners are involved to enact an issue or a situation about which they are familiar in their past. For example, a group of 25 illiterate women learners can be divided into 5 sub-groups to prepare and re-enact the experience of being a wife in the family. Since all the learners share this experience and all of them are involved in re-enactment, learning occurs here through the twin steps of preparation and re-enactment.

    This approach is particularly useful where learners share a somewhat similar experience and that experience or issue is difficult to recall because of its emotional valence. It can also be used where the possibility of recall of past experience is likely to be uneven among learners. This use of re-enactment as role-play is particularly apt for issues dealing with complex emotional and attitudinal aspects of learning.

    Obviously, the choice of a particular use of role-play depends on the learning agenda, group of learners and trainer’s capacity. But it is important to remember that the fourth type of use mentioned above implies learning from re-enactment of past experience, which can be a powerful method if the focus of learning is awareness.

    Of course, in whichever way role-play is used, a discussion must follow to process the experience of either observation or re-enactment. It must be remembered that real consolidation of learning through role-play occurs through the steps of preparation, re-enactment, discussion, processing and analysis with generalization to real life situation.

    Advantages:

    • It is energizing

    • It helps the suppressed and illiterate to express their feelings

    • It is simple and low cost

    • It focuses on problems which are very real in nature

    • It presents complex issues simply and in a short while

    • It does not need material or advance preparation

    Disadvantages:

    • There is a possibility of it becoming entertainment which vitiates learning

    • Participants can get too involved in their roles and later loose objectivity during analysis

    • Acting can become an end in itself and participants can overact or distort the roles

    • That the observers need to observe must be explained clearly or else the discussion, which occurs later on the basis of this observation, will be inadequate.

    At the end of role-playing:

    Role-plays can become charged with emotion. Bringing people ‘out’ of their roles is of paramount importance, otherwise negative or hostile feelings may persist, causing continued discomfort and anxiety. Techniques for doing this include:

    • Engaging in discussion of a totally unrelated topic to promote interaction that brings the group back to the ‘here and now’

    • Allowing further discussion of any issue of concern

    • Allowing objective feedback on aspects of the portrayal of the roles and how real the situation felt

    • Asking actors and observers what they liked about the interaction and what might have been done differently

    • Asking the class what they learnt from the role-play

    • Drawing the class’ attention back to the objective, or to the main points that the role-play was to demonstrate.



    Minggu 8

    Posted: March 19, 2011 in Uncategorized

    Selasa (01.03.2011)

    LABORATORY WORK 3

    Khamis (03.03.2011)

    Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut :

    Practical Work in Science

    •Enhance scientific and thinking skills
    •Through practical work:

    –  enhance scientific, manipulative and thinking   skills

    –  positive attitude towards science

    –  development of scientific concepts

    •Approaches:

    –  deductive / verification

    –  inductive

    –  problem solving

    •Involves 3 phases:
    -Pre laboratory
    -Laboratory work
    -Post laboratory

     

     

     

    Minggu 7

    Posted: March 19, 2011 in Uncategorized

    Selasa (22.02.2011)

    LABORATORY WORK 1

     

    Khamis (24.02.2011)

    LABORATORY WORK 2


    Minggu 6

    Posted: March 19, 2011 in Uncategorized

    Selasa (15.02.2011)


    Khamis (17.02.2011)

    Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut :

    Science, Technology and Society

    Science technology and society is the study of the impact that is made when science, technology and society combine. The combination of these fields has existed since the first inventions, such as the wheel, and continued throughout the years as the printing press and computers were created. Soon the impact that one field had on the other began to change the way that people viewed fields as separate entities and became one area of study all together. In order to fully understand the topic of science technology and society, one must first understand the definitions of each individual part.

    Science is defined as knowledge of general truths. It may also refer to a skilled technique, technology or practice. Science utilizes the scientific method in order to prove its general truths.

    Technology is the application or usage of knowledge in a particular area. It can also be a specialized field.

    A Society is a collection of relationships between individuals, including different economic, cultural, or political properties with a common end or goal; it can be a community and also a social group or organization.

    When these three things are combined, it is learned that science technology and society is the application of a skilled technique or a general truth and how it affects our society and vice versa. Science and technology has impacted our society in such a large number of ways that its evidence is everywhere. Just think of the telephone, ever since it was invented society desired a more mobile way to communicate with people, hence the invention of the mobile phone.

    The same can be said about the mail, as now there are more emails sent in one day than there are articles of mail sent via the post office in one year. The effects that science & technology have on society can be both intended and unintended, and both outcomes can be equally important.

    Some of these effects are as follows: Values are changed because expectations and reality are changed. Some state that Ethics are also affected, in cases such as capitol punishment, abortion and euthanasia that have arrived due to technology and/or science. Technology is also said to simplify people’s lifestyles by which it is easier to gain information via the internet, attend classes via kallianceand more specialized jobs being created to support the new inventions.

    Science technology and society is more than just the sum of its parts. It is our way of life. Society demands products and inventors must create them in order to appease us. And because the growth of technology tends to create more jobs, the need for certified professionals is vast. Certification can be obtained in many different forms of which e-learning is one.

    The key goals of STS are:

     

    • An interdisciplinary historical institutionalism (HI) approach to science education, where there is a seamless integration of economic, ethical, social and political aspects of scientific and technological developments in the science curriculum.
    • Engaging students in examining a variety of real world issues and grounding scientific knowledge in such realities. In today’s world, such issues might include the impact on society of: global warminggenetic engineeringanimal testingdeforestation practices, nuclear testing and environmental legislations, such as the EU Waste Legislation or the Kyoto Protocol.
    • Enabling students to formulate a critical understanding of the interface between science, society and technology.
    • Developing students’ capacities and confidence to make informed decisions, and to take responsible action to address issues arising from the impact of science on their daily lives.

     

     

    Mastery  learning

    •An approach that ensures all learners are able to acquire and master the intended learning outcomes
    •Based on the principle that learners are able to learn
    •learners learn on their own pace
    •Elements of remedial and enrichment activities


    Minggu 5

    Posted: February 15, 2011 in Uncategorized

    Selasa (07.02.2010)

    Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut:

    THINKING SKILLS

    • Mental process that requires an individual to integrate knowledge, skills and attitudes
    • Foundation for thoughtful learning
    • Thoughtful learning is achieved when students are actively involved in the learning
    • Categorized into critical thinking skills and creative thinking skills and thinking strategies.

    PROCESS SKILLS AND THINKING SKILLS

    Khamis (10.02.2011)

    Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut:

    Teaching Approaches

    Basically, teaching of science can be divided to two basic approaches; namely the inductive and deductive approach. The inductive approach provides students with learning situations in which they can discover a concept or principles. In deductive approach on the other hand, a concept or principle is given and discussed, followed by experiences to further illustrate the idea presented.

    Inquiry learning

    •Teaching Sc using Inquiry method implies the need to shift from

    ‘ teachers presenting information’  to ‘ students learning sc themselves’ through active involvement

    • Both teachers and   students need to acquire the inquiry skills such as :

    – skills of asking questions

    – planning an investigation

    – gathering data

    – using appropriate tools

    – explaining relationship

    – communicating the results

    •Inquiry  processes include:

    – originating the problem

    – formulating hypothesis

    – designing investigative approach

    – conducting experiments

    – synthesising knowledge

     

    Constructivism

    Constructivism is a view of learning based on the belief that knowledge isn’t a thing that can be simply given by the teacher at the front of the room to students in their desks. Rather, knowledge is constructed by learners through an active, mental process of development; learners are the builders and creators of meaning and knowledge. Constructivism draws on the develomental work of Piaget (1977) and Kelly (1991). Twomey Fosnot (1989) defines constructivism by reference to four principles: learning, in an important way, depends on what we already know; new ideas occur as we adapt and change our old ideas; learning involves inventing ideas rather than mechanically accumulating facts; meaningful learning occurs through rethinking old ideas and coming to new conclusions about new ideas which conflict with our old ideas. A productive, constructivist classroom, then, consists of learner-centered, active instruction. In such a classroom, the teacher provides students with experiences that allow them to hypothesize, predict, manipulate objects, pose questions, research, investigate, imagine, and invent. The teacher’s role is to facilitate this process.

    Piaget (1977) asserts that learning occurs by an active construction of meaning, rather than by passive recipience. He explains that when we, as learners, encounter an experience or a situation that conflicts with our current way of thinking, a state of disequilibrium or imbalance is created. We must then alter our thinking to restore equilibrium or balance. To do this, we make sense of the new information by associating it with what we already know, that is, by attempting to assimilate it into our existing knowledge. When we are unable to do this, we accommodate the new information to our old way of thinking by restructuring our present knowledge to a higher level of thinking.

    Similar to this is Kelly’s theory of personal constructs (Kelly, 1991). Kelly proposes that we look at the world through mental constructs or patterns which we create. We develop ways of construing or understanding the world based on our experiences. When we encounter a new experience, we attempt to fit these patterns over the new experience. For example, we know from experience that when we see a red traffic light, we are supposed to stop. The point is that we create our own ways of seeing the world in which we live; the world does not create them for us.

    Constructivist beliefs have recently been applied to teaching and learning in the classroom.

     

     

    Contextual learning

    Contextual Learning is reality-based, outside-of-the-classroom experience, within a specific context which serves as a catalyst for students to utilize their disciplinary knowledge, and which presents a forum for further formation of their personal values, faith, and professional development. Beyond the challenge of direct, meaningful experience, contextual learning requires reflection to build lasting cognitive connections. Contextual learning is useful for child development as by providing learning experiences in a context in which the are interested and motivated in they are able to achieve more. Contextual learning structures may include internshipsservice learning, and study abroad programs, among others.” This definition was formulated in 2002 and presented at the annual conference proceedings of the National Society for Experiential Education by Michael True.