Minggu 4

Posted: February 5, 2011 in Uncategorized

Selasa (25.01.2011)

Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut :

Science Process Skills

  • Involves in scientific investigation
  • As ways in producing and arranging information about our world
  • Basic – basic & provide foundation
  • Integrated Skills – complex skills

Basic Skills

  • Observing
  • Classifying
  • Measuring and Using Numbers
  • Inferring
  • Predicting
  • Communicating
  • Using Space-Time Relationship

Integrated Science Process Skills

  • Interpreting Data
  • Defining Operationally
  • Controlling Variables
  • Hypothesising
  • Experimenting


  • Using one or more senses to gather information qualitatively
  • The five senses are sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing
  • Equipment may be used to make data accurate and precise. Eg. the use of ruler, thermometer
  • Information gain leads to curiousity, questions, interpretations and further investigation
  • For development to other skills such as inferring, communication, predicting, and classification

Khamis (27.01.2011)

Berikut merupakan hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut :

Measuring and Using Numbers

  • A quantitative observation using equipment
  • Correct way of taking the measurement


  • Grouping or ordering objects or events according to a classification scheme or patterns
  • Based on similarities, differences and interrelationships
  • Scientist classify for the purpose of study


  • Ideas developed or explanation made based on observations
  • Appreciate better if we are able to interpret and explain things happening around us
  • Scientists form hypotheses based on inferences

Examples …

  • There is a spot in my front yard where grass does not grow
  • I see that iodine turns purple when put it on a potato chip
  • That star is brighter than the others


  • Forming an idea or making a forecast based on a certain set of data
  • Closely related to observing, inferring, and classifying
  • Classifying involves ordering or sequencing. It permits us to recognize patterns and to predict from the patterns what future observation will be.


  • Giving or exchanging information with others, in the form of verbal, written, diagrams, graphs, tables, or other forms of visual demonstration

Using Space-Time Relationship

  • Describing changes in parameter with time. Examples of parameters are location, direction, shape, size, volume, weight and mass.

Interpreting Data

  • Giving rationale explanations about an object, event or pattern obtained from the collected data
  • What does the data tell

Defining Operationally

  • Defining terms within the context of one’s own experiences; stating a definition in terms of “what you do” and “what you observe”
  • Example: Endurance of a person

a.  the number of hours a could stay awake

b.  the distance a person could run without stopping

c.  the number of jumping jacks a person could do


  • Complete circuit is a bulb, dry cell and wire connected so the bulb lights up
  • A legume  bears its seeds in pods
  • A carbohydrate turns blue-black when a drop of iodine is placed on it

Controlling Variables

  • A variable is something that varies or changes. Controlling variables is manipulating one variable or factor that may affect the outcome of an event while other variables or factors are held constant


  • Stating a problem to be solved as a question that can be tested by an experiment. Hypotheses are intellectual guesses about the relationships between variables


  • Setting up a planned situation and using most of the science process skills to collect and analyze data to draw conclusions in order to test the hypothesis or to solve a problem

Manipulative Skills

  • Psychomotor skills
  • Use and handle science apparatus and substances
  • Handle specimens correctly and carefully
  • Draw specimens and apparatus
  • Clean science apparatus
  • Store science apparatus

Minggu 3

Posted: January 18, 2011 in Uncategorized

Selasa (18.01.2011)

Hasil pembelajaran kami pada hari tersebut adalah seperti berikut :

-Behaviourisme melihat kepada ‘product’ iaitu perubahan sikap para pelajar selepas menjalani proses pembelajaran.

-Constructivism melihat kepada ‘process’ iatu bagaimana seseorang itu belajar untuk memahami sesuatu konsep.


  • Facts – foundation for concepts, principles, and theories. What truth is defined.

Eg. “wires of different thickness have different electrical resistance”

  • Concepts – an abstraction of events, objects, or phenomena that seem to have certain properties or attributes in common

Eg. A force is given to an object in motion because force is determined by the mass of the object and the acceleration (speed and direction) with which it moves.

  • Principles– composed of concepts and facts and related to observable phenomena

eg: Hot air expand, Archimedes principle

  • Laws: more stable than principles

eg: Law of conservation of energy

  • Theories – explain why phenomena occur as they do

eg: quantum theory


Teaching Concepts

 Giving examples and non-examples

 The use of advance organizer such as concept maps

 The use of images and analogies

 The use of various presentation such as models and symbols

 The use of experiments






Khamis (20.01.2011)

Minggu 2

Posted: January 16, 2011 in Uncategorized

Selasa (11.01.2011)

Berikut merupakan hasil perbincangan kami di dalam kelas pada hari tersebut :

Science Education

Science education empowers students to be questioning, reflective and critical thinkers. it does this by giving them particular ways of looking at the world and by emphasizing the importance of evidence in forming conclusions. Science education develops students’ confidence to initiate and manage change to meet personal, vocational and societal needs. Science education assissts students to be active citizens by providing and understandings they need to be informed contributors to debates about sensitive, moral ethical and environmental issues. An appreciation of scientific knowledge, processes and values has the potential to help students appreciate and ecologically-sustainable environment. It is important that the students appreciate and understand how the study of science presents them with opportunities for responsible decision making in their local, national and global communities.

Guidance for Science Curriculum Development :

1. Rukun Negara :

  • Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan
  • Kesetiaan kepada Raja dan Negara
  • Keluhuran Perlembagaan
  • Kedaulatan Undang-undang
  • Kesopanan dan Kesusilaan

2. National Philosophy of Education :

“Education in Malaysia is an on-going efforts towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large”

3. National Science Education Philosophy :

In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency.

Science and technology culture can be achieved by the followings steps :

1. Science as a product knowledge.

2. Science as a process skills.

3. Application of the scientific knowledge in daily life.

4. Attitude and Values

5. Teaching and learning strategies.

6. Usage of ICT

7. Integration with the other non-science subjects such as engaging language in science education e.x. PPSMI.

In conclusion, science education can be potrayed as below :

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Khamis (13.01.2011)

Berikut merupakan hasil perbincangan kami di dalam kelas pada hari tersebut :


•Sees learning as a product
•Predict and control of behaviour
•Change in learner’s behaviour


•Place importance on meaningful learning
•Look into how learners construct meaning of the knowledge learnt or how learning takes place
•What happens in the mind
•Begins with what learners know

Robert Gagne and the General Learning Hierarchy

•He views learning  as the establishment of a capability to do something that the learner was not capable of doing previously. Notice the emphasis on the learner ‘ doing’.
•He postulates a hierarchy of learning capability. Learning one particular capability usually depends upon having previously learned one or more simpler capabilities
•Observable changes in behaviour comprise the only criteria for inferring that learning has occurred.
•It follows , that the beginning ,or lowest, level of a learning hierarchy would include very simple behaviours.
•These behaviours would form the basis for learning more complex behaviours in the level of hierarchy.
Gagnė Learning Hierarchy

Level 8 :   Problem solving

Level 7 :   Principle learning

Level 6 :   Concept learning

Level 5 :   Multiple discrimination

Level 4 :   Verbal association

Level 3 :   Chaining

Level 2 :    Stimulus-respon

Level 1 :   Signal learning

Piaget’s Stages of cognitive development

•Believes that all individuals proceed through a number of stages of intellectual development
•Learning is an individual, internal act that depends on learner’s cognitive development
•Stages: Sensorimotor , preoperational, concrete operational  & formal operational

Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development

•Learners can reach the higher ground in a particular knowledge domain
•Learning is a social and collaborative activity
•Learners must utilise the input of others
•The ‘others’- peers, parents,friends, internet, books, videos
•The teacher is a facilitator
•The zone is known ZPD, where it is the distance the learner’s existing level and the target level
•Through expert-novice relationship or scaffolding
•Ex: Teacher facilitating students

Minggu 1

Posted: January 13, 2011 in Uncategorized

Selasa (04.01.2010)

Kami membincangkan hasil pembelajaran dari kursus ini. Antara hasil pembelajaran tersebut ialah pelajar dapat :

(1) analisis Kurikulum Sains Sekolah Menengah dan berupaya mengaitkannya dengan pengetahuan sains, pengetahuan pedagogi dan berkebolehan mengajara secara berkesan.
(2) Menterjemah teori pembelajaran berkaitan dengan sains sekolah menengah dan mengaplikasinya dalam pendekatan dan kaedah mengajar.
(3) Mengaplikasi pendekatan pengajaran sains dan berupaya melaksanakan pengajaran sains.

Khamis (06.01.2011)

Kami mempelajari apa yang dimaksudkan dengan sains. Hasil pembelajaran kami adalah seperti berikut :

What is science?

Systematic knowledge which can be tested and proven by it’s truth…

Knowledge about the world, especially based on examination and testing, and on facts that can be proven.

So, science is
(i) Knowledge
(ii) Skills
(iii) Values

Then, the meaning of science can be divided into three :
(i) PROCESS – e.g. skills (basic & integrated)
(ii) PRODUCT – e.g. fact, concept, principle, law, theory
(iii) ATTITUDE – e.g. in the form of emotion and intellect

Characteristics of scientific knowledge (Rubba & Anderson, 1978):

(I) Amoral
Science cannot be said to be morally good or bad. Misuse of Science and Technology that causes moral dilemma.

(II) Creative
Knowledge is the product of human activity and creativity. Science should be used for developing new ideas for problem solving.

(III) Developing
Scientific knowledge is tentative, incertitude. Our understanding of science is built on the result of the past investigation.

(IV) Parsimony
Scientist explain natural phenomena in simple and coherent tersm as such science is easy to understand.

(V) Tested
Science knowledge can be tested. When a Scientific discovery reported, other scientists would repeat the experiment or investigation

(VI) United
Scientific concepts, laws and theories are interrelated and can be applied in all scientific field.

pungshu wangdu?

Posted: January 13, 2011 in Uncategorized

pungshu wangdu merupakan seorang watak dalam filem 3 idiots… mengisahkan seorang jejaka yang genius yang mahu menyedarkan pensyarahnya bahawa tujuan sesebuah universiti ditubuhkan bukanlah sebagai institusi yang menyediakan manusia sebagai robot sebaliknya, universiti sepatutnya berperanan menyediakan pelajarnya sebagai manusia yang dapat berbakti kepada masyarakatnya… Justeru kita yang bakal menjadi guru sepatutnya peka tetang hal ini kerana tugas guru bukan sahaja untuk menyediakan pelajarnya dengan ilmu pengetahuan malahan juga dengan akhlak yang mulia.

salam perkenalan

Posted: January 13, 2011 in Uncategorized

ini merupakan post saya yang pertama buat saya bagi blog ini yg direka khas buat subjek SXEP3207 : Kaedah Pengajaran dalam Sains. Blog ini akan merumuskan hasil pembelajaran bagi kelas tersebut dalam masa dua jam (8:00-10:00 pagi) pada setiap hari Selasa dan Khamis. Semoga penulisan blog ini akan bermanfaat buat rakan-rakan sekali… Sekian